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资治通鉴

司马光

资治通鉴

Zizhitongjian - A Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government

    《资治通鉴》-我国第一部编年体通史,是我国古代著名历史学家司马光(字君实,陕州夏县人)和他的助手刘攽、刘恕、范祖禹、司马康等人历时十九年编纂的一部规模空前的编年体通史巨著。

    The Zizhitongjian (literally "A Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government") was a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084, under the form of a chronicles. In 1065 CE, Emperor Yingzong of Song ordered the great historian Sima Guang (1019–1086) to lead with other scholars such as his chief assistants Liu Shu, Liu Ban and Fan Zuyu, the compilation of a universal history of China. The task took 19 years to be completed, and, in 1084, it was presented to Emperor Shenzong of Song. The Zizhitongjian exposes Chinese history from 403 BCE to 959 CE, contains 294 volumes, and about 3 million Chinese characters.

    《资治通鉴》全书294卷,约300多万字。《资治通鉴》所记历史断限,上起周威烈王二十三年(前403年),下迄后周显德六年(959年),前共1362年。《资治通鉴》的内容以政治、军事和民族关系为主,兼及经济、文化和历史人物评价,目的是通过对事关国家盛衰、民族兴亡的统治阶级政策的描述,以警示后人。

    《资治通鉴》自成书以来,历代帝王将相、文人骚客、各界要人争读不止。点评批注《资治通鉴》的帝王、贤臣、鸿儒及现代的政治家、思想家、学者不胜枚举、数不胜数。对《资治通鉴》的称誉,除《史记》之外,几乎没有任何一部史著可与《资治通鉴》比美。 可用清人王鸣盛的一句话来概括:“此天地间必不可无之书,亦学者必不可不读之书也。”

    The Zizhitongjian chronologically narrates the history of China from the Warring States to the Five Dynasties (403 BCE - 959 CE). The major contributor, Sima Guang, was active in each step, from collecting events and dates from various previous works to drafting and publication.

    《资治通鉴》的作者司马光(1019~1086年),立志要写出一部内容有“善可为法,恶可为戒”之用,形式有简明扼要之长的通史。他于北宋英宗治平三年(1066年)将自己编成的从战国到秦亡这一段历史的编年体《通志》八卷进呈英宗,得到英宗的赞赏和支持。英宗鼓励他继续编下去,给他配备了几名得力助手,专门设置了书局,并赐书名为《历代君臣事迹》。第二年(1067年),神宗继位,以其所编具有“鉴于往事,有资于治道”之意,又新赐书名曰《资治通鉴》。

    司马光前后用了19年的时间,终于在神宗元丰七年(1084年)即司马光去世前两年,将编好的《资治通鉴》全书呈报宋神宗。元佑元年(1086年)九月,司马光病逝;同年十月,宋神宗敕命将校定的《资治通鉴》书稿予以刻印。可以说,司马光倾其毕生精力,一丝不苟地完成了这部巨著。他在《进书表》中称“臣之精力,尽于此书”,实属记实之辞。

    Sima Guang left the traditional usage in Chinese historiography. Since almost 1,000 years and the Shiji, standard Chinese dynastic histories primarily divided chapters between annals of rulers, and biographies of officials. In Chinese terms, the book changed the format of histories from biographical style to chronological style, which is better suited for analysis, activism and criticism. According to Wilkinson, "It had an enormous influence on later Chinese historical writing, either directly of through its many abbreviations, continuations, and adaptations. It remains an extraordinarily useful first reference for a quick and reliable coverage of events at a particular time."

    《资治通鉴》全书共294卷,逐年记载了自公元前403年至公元959年这1362年间发生的大事。除采用正史资料外,还博采杂史222种以上。书中记事,条理清晰,层次分明,详而不乱。因此,这部编年体史书,体大思精,不但史料充实,而且文笔生动,特别是它的时间概念极为明确具体,让人爱看,看了还想看,又很耐看,其魅力是经久不衰的。

    In the 12th century, Zhu Xi produced a reworked, condensed version of Zizhitongjian, known as Tongjian Gangmu, or Zizhitongjian Gangmu (通鉴纲目). This condensed version was itself later translated into Manchu language, upon the request of Qing Dynasty Kangxi Emperor. This Manchu version was itself translated into French by French Jesuit missionary Joseph-Anna-Marie de Moyriac de Mailla. His twelve-volume translation, "Histoire générale de la Chine, ou Annales de cet Empire; traduit du Tong-kien-kang-mou par de Mailla" was published posthumously in Paris in 1777-1783.

资治通鉴在线阅读目录

资治通鉴卷1-50 资治通鉴卷51-100 资治通鉴卷101-150 

资治通鉴卷151-200 资治通鉴卷201-250 资治通鉴卷251-294

资治通鉴内容简介

资治通鉴 在线阅读 卷001 文白对照资治通鉴 在线阅读 卷001

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